Theory O: Creating an Ownership Style of Management - CLEO Skip to main content


Young presents a model of what is required for effective employee ownership. It was derived from a long-term study of ESOP firms. A major finding was that those that were the highest on participation outperformed the ones lowest by 11-17%. She goes on to state that it’s the combining of ownership and participation that generates success. In addition, she defines specific participation practices and conditions under which they work.